The Farewell Sermon of the Prophet Muḥammad [ﷺ]

Indeed all praises is for Allāh (ﷻ), the Lord of the World; we praise Him, and we seek His aid, and we ask for His forgiveness, and we seek Allāh’s (ﷻ) refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. He whom Allāh (ﷻ) guides, none can misguide him, and He whom Allāh (ﷻ) misguides, then none can guide him. Blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) and upon all his Family and Companions. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allāh (ﷻ), Alone, having no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad (ﷺ) is His slave and His messenger.

Mu’ mīneen Brothers and Sisters
As-salāmū’alaykum

9th Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (632 CE)

While standing at `Arafah during the Farewell Hajj, and after praising and glorifying Allāh, the Messenger of Allāh, [ﷺ] said:

Amma Ba’ād…
Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), lend me your ears, an attentive one, for I do not know if I will ever meet you again after this year and in this place.❞

A tall man stood and asked, “So what do you advise us to do?”
He [ﷺ] replied, ❝Worship your Lord, Allāh and pray your five daily salāh, fast in the month of Ramadān, perform ḥajj to the House of Allāh, give your zakāt willingly, obey those placed in charge over you – and you shall enter the Paradise of your Lord.❞

All interest from the pre-Islāmic period of ignorance is to be abolished; the first that I shall abolish is that of al-`Abbas. Your capital is your own; do not do wrong and you will not be wronged.❞

Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), the months and days have once again been set to the way they were on the day that Allāh created the heavens and the earth. The number of months with Allāh is twelve, four of which are sacred, protected from violations being committed therein, these are Rajab that comes between Jumada and Sha’ban, and three which are consecutive: Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram. That is the true and upright religion; do not wrong yourselves in them.

❝Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), those having deposits should award them to those who entrusted them with them.

Woe to you! Be careful! You will meet your Creator and He will ask you about your deeds. So, do not apostate after me by striking the necks of one another. Shayṭān has given up hope of being worshipped by those who pray, but not so in sowing dissension amongst you.

❝Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), Shayṭān has despaired of being worshipped in your land till the end of time, but he has hope in your doing (wrong) acts that you think insignificant.

Beware of (harming) your religion through such acts because he shall be obeyed in these and shall be pleased. Beware of him (lest he harm) your religion.

Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), Itaqullāh (Fear Allāh) with regards to women and treat them well for they are as captives with you. You took them as a trust from Allāh and you are permitted marital relations with them in accordance to Allāh’s law. You have rights over them and they have rights over you. One of the rights you have over them is that they not allow others besides yourselves to set foot on your furnishings, and that they do not give permission to anyone you dislike entering your homes. They should not disobey you in that which is good. If they do this, you have no right to (chastise them). They are due their food and their clothing in kindness. Admonish those women you fear are rebellious and high-handed, refuse to sleep with them in bed, and if you strike (them), do so without viciousness.

Listen well to me and live! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong! Do not do wrong! The (retaliation) of a transgression should not be meted to any save the transgressor...
The father should not transgress against his son and the son should not transgress against his father. Know that every Muslim is a brother to another Muslim and that the Muslims are brothers, therefore no man should have access to his brother’s wealth, unless with his goodwill.

❝Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), I have left you the Book of AllāhAl-Qur’ān and the Tradition of his Prophet, you will not go astray if you adopt them, so live by them.

❝Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people) Allāh is one and your father is one. The Arab is not superior to a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab to an Arab, nor a red-skinned person to a black-skinned person, and nor a black-skinned person to a red-skinned person, except through God-consciousness.

❝Yā-ʾayyuhā n-nās (O people), what day is this?
They replied, “A sacred day.”
He [ﷺ] asked, ❝What land is this?
They replied, “A sacred land.”
He [ﷺ] asked, ❝What month is this?
They replied, “A sacred month.”
He [ﷺ] said, ❝Allāh has made your blood, your possessions and your honor sacred, just as this day in this month and in this land is sacred, this until you meet your Lord.

And he repeated this over and over.

Let those of you who are present inform those who are absent, perhaps the absent would retain more than some of those present. There will be no prophet after me and no nation after you.

Then He [ﷺ] raised his head and said, ❝Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)? Have I not conveyed (the message)?
They said, “Allāhumma Na’am!”
He [ﷺ] then raised his hands and said three times, ❝O God! Bear witness that I have conveyed (the message)!

A brief summary of the last sermon of Nabī [ﷺ] is as follows:

“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action.”

“Regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds.”

“O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God’s trust and with His permission… Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”

“God has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. God has judged that there shall be no interest.”

So my dear muʾmin brothers and sisters, we should ponder over its meanings – In shā’Allāh, as the sermon was a message not only for the people present during the sermon, but to us as well and try to follow the message, that our beloved Rasūl’Allāh [ﷺ] conveyed.

Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allāh’s (ﷻ) Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allāh (ﷻ) Alone Knows Best and He (ﷻ) is the Only Source of Strength.

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